Sabal palmetto

From Palmpedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Cabbage Palm

Sabal (SAH-bahl)
palmetto (pahl-MEHT-oh)
Sabalhabitat.JPG
Sabal palmetto in foreground and background.
Scientific Classification
Genus: Sabal (SAH-bahl)
Species:
palmetto (pahl-MEHT-oh)
Synonyms
Sabal jamesiana,Inodes schwarzii,Corypha palmetto
Native Continent
America
America.gif
Morphology
Habit: Solitary
Leaf type: Costapalmate, with recurving leaf
Height: 80 ft
Trunk diameter: 12-24 inches
Culture
Sun exposure: Full when mature
Survivability index
Common names
cabbage palm

Habitat and distribution

Sabal palms are New World plants, this species is found in the Bahamas and Cuba, Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas. It thrives in a variety of settings including beaches, forests and swamps. In their natural range they are considered weedy as they readily propagate throughout the landscape, usually assisted by birds.

Just north of downtown Orlando, FL. Photo by Eric S.

Description

A large robust palm with a solitary trunk, that grows to about 50 ft (15.2 m) but may occassionally reach heights of 70 ft (21.3 m). The crown is relatively small being 12-18 ft (3.7-5.5 m) in diameter. Like many palms the crown is typically wider when grown in shade and more compact when grown in full sun. The large leaves have a dull finish and are a medium green, sometimes yellow-green, in color depending on the individual and situation. Each leaf is up to 12 ft (3.7 m) long overall including the spineless petioles (leaf stems) which measure about 5-6 ft (1.5-1.8 m) in length. They are up to 6 ft (1.8 m) in width with drooping leaf segments about 3 ft (0.9 m) long and 2-3 in (5.1-7.6 cm) wide. These segments are split to about half the width of the leaf and typically slough off tan fibers at the edges. Cabbage palm leaves are costapalmate, meaning that the leaflets are arranged on the stem in a pattern that is midway between palmate (leaflets arranged like the fingers on the palm of your hand) and pinnate (feather shaped). (floridata.com)

S. palmetto grows to a height of 10 – 25 m (32-82 feet), with a stem diameter of approximately 30 – 60 cm (12-24 inches). Leaves may measure up to 3 m (9.8 feet) in length. Fruits are small, measuring approximately 8 mm (1/3 inch) in width. Root systems are deeply penetrating, and may reach depths of 4.6 – 6.1 m (15-20 feet) (Duncan and Duncan 1988). Stem shape is uniform from the ground to the crown. Leaf bases, also known as boots, tend to slough off the tree as they dry, giving the trunk a smooth appearance (Duncan and Duncan 1988; Walker 1990). Leaves are palmate with no spines, and may measure 3 m (9.8 feet) in length, each with a prominent midrib. Flowers are cream colored and droop in clusters from the crown. Fruits are black and fleshy with a single seed (Olson et al. 1974). They may measure 8 mm (1/3 inch) in width. Root systems are short and bulbous, penetrating the soil to depths of 4.6 – 6.1 m (15-20 feet). (Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce) Editing by edric.

Culture

Optimum growth occurs in humid subtropical to warm temperate climates where average rainfall is 100 – 163 cm (39-64 inches), and average maximum/minimum temperatures range from –4 - 36° C (25-97 ° F). Northern growth is limited by low winter temperatures. (Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce)

Preferred soil type for S. palmetto is calcium rich, and neutral to alkaline in nature. Cabbage palms prefer poorly drained soils, and often grow at the edge of freshwater and brackish wetlands. This species tolerates flooding (Alexander 1955).

Comments and Curiosities

This is a tillering palm, it exhibits saxophone style root growth (it has a heel), keep top third of heel above soil elevation!

External Links

References

Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).
Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

Banner1B
Back to Palm Encyclopedia